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⦁ Multiple Choice QuestionsEach question is worth one mark, for a total of 30 marks.2. Organisms likely use visible light becausea. a large proportion of the electromagnetic radiation on Earth is light.b. radiation with a higher energy than light might damage biological molecules more easily.c. radiation with a lower energy content than light might not have enough energy to excite electrons.d. radiation with longer wavelengths than light are absorbed by water and carbon dioxide.e. all of the above2. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?a. DNA can be damaged by ultraviolet radiation.b. The pigment melanin protects plants from excessive damage to their photosynthetic apparatus.c. Shorter wavelengths of radiation are more harmful to organisms than longer wavelengths.d. Human skin cells can be harmed by ultraviolet radiation.e. Visible light contains less energy than ultraviolet radiation.2. Photoheterotrophsa. use light as an energy source.b. are found in protists.c. use carbon dioxide as a carbon source.d. are found in certain groups of plants.e. are NOT found in prokaryotes.2. Chemoautotrophsa. use organic or inorganic substances as an energy source.b. are found in protists.c. use organic substances as a carbon source.d. are found in certain groups of plants.e. are not found in prokaryotes.2. Under what conditions may adaptive radiation occur?a. when islands are colonizedb. after the demise of a successful group of organismsc. after the emergence of new physiological pathwaysd. when organisms move into new adaptive zonese. all of the above2. Climbing plants in tropical forests have a competitive advantage over trees becausea. they grow relatively slowly.b. they have a high amount of supporting structure.c. they have a low amount of leaf biomass.d. they receive a good amount of sunlighte. they are usually parasites supported by trees.2. Which of the following groups of organisms are decomposers?a. animalsb. fungic. plantsd. algaee. all of the above2. Which of the following items is NOT associated with monsoons?a. rain shadowb. reversal of wind directionc. adiabatic coolingd. high precipitatione. low air pressure2. Which of the following is NOT true about ocean currents?a. They move clockwise in the northern hemisphere.b. They move counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere.c. They are partly caused by trade winds and westerlies.d. They mix water thoroughly, resulting in a uniform water temperature at similar latitudes.e. They are influenced by the Earth’s rotation.2. Some sea slugs are able to perform photosynthesis. They do this bya. producing their own chlorophyll.b. eating algal cells and moving the cells to the endodermis.c. having a mutualistic association with algae.d. having algal chloroplasts in their endodermis.e. all of the above.2. The total potential energy in a system is calleda. entropy.b. free energy.c. enthalpy.d. exothermic.e. endothermic.2. Under which condition will a reaction be spontaneous?a. when ΔG is positiveb. when ΔH is negativec. when the product(s) will have more free energy than the reactant(s)d. when ΔS is negativee. none of the above2. The binding of a substrate to an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme’s shape. This shape change is known asa. allosteric inhibition.b. activation.c. reversible inhibition.d. induced fit.e. denaturation.2. The part of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate(s) is calleda. an allosteric site.b. an induced-fit.c. a reaction site.d. an active site.e. a cofactor.Use the following figure to answer the next question.
2. Which of the following statements is TRUE?a. The figure represents a spontaneous reaction.b. The reactants have more free energy than the products.c. The products have more free energy than the reactants.d. The figure represents an exergonic reaction.e. ΔG is negative.2. Which of the following substances is most difficult to move across a membrane?a. Na+b. O2c. H2Od. glycerole. CO22. Receptor mediated endocytosisa. moves liquids out of the cell.b. moves unspecified substances into the cell by forming a pocket in the plasma membrane.c. is very specific.d. involves a proton pump.2. Which of the following does NOT apply to electrochemical gradients?a. There is a difference in the concentration of ions between the two sides of the membrane.b. There is a difference in the electrical charge between the two sides of the membrane.c. There is a difference in the electrical charge but not in the concentration of ions between the two sides of the membrane.d. The energy of the gradient can be used for a number of purposes.e. Nerve impulses are based on electrochemical gradients.2. Which of the following is NOT true of symport?a. Two substances move in opposite directions.b. Two substances move in the same direction.c. The diffusion of one substance provides the energy for the transport of a second one.d. Ions are usually involved.e. Amino acids are one type of substance involved.2. A cell needs ________ to obtain unsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids.a. glycoproteinsb. glycerolc. cholesterold. phospholipidse. desaturases2. The role of the oxygen molecules required for aerobic respiration is toa. accept electrons directly from either NADH or FADH2.b. accept the low energy electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.c. form ATP.d. to produce CO2.e. store high energy electrons to pass to complex I of the electron transport chain.2. During chemiosmosis, ________ are transferred from NADH and FADH2 to electron acceptor molecules, and the energy released is used to create a(n) ________ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.a. ATP molecules; ADP moleculeb. water molecules; oxygenc. protons; electrond. ADP molecules; ATP moleculee. electrons; proton2. Which of the following terms would you associate with lactate fermentation?a. NADPHb. glycolysisc. ethanold. citric acid cyclee. electron transport chain2. During the citric acid cycle, each acetyl group entering the cycle yieldsa. four ATP, two NADH, and one FADH2.b. one ATP, two NADH, and four FADH2.c. three ATP, two NADH, and one FADH2.d. one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2.e. one ATP, two NADH, and three FADH2.2. Which of the following statements concerning decarboxylation reactions is FALSE?a. They are one type of general reaction that occurs during aerobic respiration.b. They involve the removal of two protons and two electrons.c. They occur as part of the citric acid cycle.d. They produce CO2 that is then exhaled via breathing.e. They involve the removal of a carboxyl group (-COOH) from a substrate.2. The genes coding for rubisco are founda. both in the nuclear DNA and in the chloroplast DNA.b. both in the nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial DNA.c. only in the nuclear DNA.d. only in the chloroplast DNA.e. only in the mitochondrial DNA.2. How (exactly) is water split and oxygen released during photosynthesis?a. An energy-rich photon directly provides the energy to split water.b. An enzyme in photosystem I uses the energy of a photon to split water.c. The oxidized form of P680 splits water.d. A proton pump provides the energy to split water in the thylakoid lumen.e. ATP originating from the Calvin cycle splits water.2. Which of the following reactions occur(s) during the Calvin cycle?a. photolysis of waterb. synthesis of NADPHc. synthesis of ATPd. synthesis of sugarse. all of the above2. Reaction centre complexes of the light-dependent reactions contain ________ and ________, which receive energy from ________.a. chlorophyll; antenna complexes; carotenoidsb. accessory pigments; chlorophyll; antenna complexesc. carotenoids; proteins; chlorophylld. proteins; antenna complexes; carotenoidse. chlorophyll; proteins; antenna complexes2. In photosynthesis, how many molecules of carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH are needed to form two molecules of glucose?a. 12, 36, and 24b. 6, 18, and 12c. 24, 18, and 24d. 26, 18, and 24e. 3, 9, and 6
⦁ Multiple Choice QuestionsEach question is worth one mark, for a total of 30 marks.2. A zygote contains the ________ complement of chromosomes.a. haploidb. diploidc. polyploidd. spermatogenesise. none of these2. How is the nucleoid of a bacterial cell replicated?a. The linear DNA molecule is replicated from multiple origins of replication bidirectionally.b. The linear DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication bidirectionally.c. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from multiple origins of replication bidirectionally.d. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication bidirectionally.e. The circular DNA molecule is replicated from one origin of replication unidirectionally.2. Some cats have calico coats. These result froma. polygenic inheritance.b. epistasis.c. pleiotropy.d. inactivation of the X chromosome.e. independent assortment.2. A male human with normal vision is mated with a colour blind woman. If they have children together, what is the probability that they will have a colour blind daughter?a. 1b. 0.75c. 0.5d. 0.25e. 02. Which of the following is NOT correct about bacterial conjugation?a. F– cells do not contain the F factor.b. Bacterial conjugation results in an exchange of genes between two bacterial cells.c. Genes on the F factor code for sex pili.d. Genes can be transferred from the donor to the recipient.e. Hfr cells can produce sex pili.2. In generalized transduction, a bacterium obtains DNA from a virus as a result of a lytic cycle. The bacterium willa. survive.b. harbour a prophage.c. die immediately.d. reproduce for a few generations, until the prophage becomes virulent.e. contain virus nucleic acid.2. A repressible operon is usually controlled bya. an inactive repressor that allows the operon to be in the “on” state.b. the supply of the precursor product for the enzymes.c. an inactive repressor that keeps the operon in the “off” state.d. tryptophan.e. being turned “on,” usually by the end product of the pathway.2. A karyotype reveals that an individual is XYY. Based on your knowledge of human genetics, you conclude that this individual is phenotypicallya. female and has unusual physical features.b. female and is sterile.c. female and is fertile.d. male and is sterile.e. male and is fertile.2. Translocation occurs whena. part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.b. part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a homologous chromosome.c. crossing-over events occur.d. genes move from one area on a chromosome to another area on the same chromosome.e. a Y chromosome replaces an X chromosome in a female cell.2. In a plant cell, cytokinesis begins with the formation ofa. an aster.b. a mitotic spindle.c. a Golgi complex.d. a cell wall.e. a cell plate.2. In a human cell at prophase I, there are ________ tetrads.a. 92b. 46c. 23d. 2e. 42. In which phase are chromosomes least condensed?a. metaphaseb. prophasec. anaphased. interphasee. telophase2. Translation is the process whereby the ________ moves in orderto place the tRNA bound to the growing polypeptide chain inthe ________ site, thereby freeing the ________ site for a newaminoacyl-tRNA.a. mRNA; A; Pb. ribosome; P; Ac. tRNA; P; Ad. ribosome; A; Pe. tRNA; A; P2. Which of the following statements about DNA is FALSE?a. DNA is capable of forming many different sequences.b. DNA contains thymine instead of uracil.c. DNA is double-stranded in eukaryotic cells.d. DNA is single-stranded in prokaryotic cells.e. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose.2. Binary fission occurs whena. mitosis takes place without cytokinesis.b. homologous chromosomes have already paired.c. the cyclin-Cdk complex is no longer phosphorylating enzymes.d. the cell cycle is out of control.e. a prokaryotic cell reproduces.2. “Sticky ends” area. the single-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.b. a problem in recombinant DNA technology because they form loops of single-stranded DNA.c. double-stranded ends of a DNA segment created by some restriction enzymes.d. sites of the origin of replication in prokaryotes.e. sugar molecules that are bound to the ends of a DNA fragment.2. Enzymes called ________ form breaks in DNA molecules to prevent overtwisting in the DNA helix during replication.a. topoisomerasesb. single-strand binding proteinsc. DNA polymerasesd. RNA polymerasese. DNA ligases2. What is the probability that two lizards that are heterozygous for striped tails (Ss) will produce an offspring that is homozygous forno stripes (ss) on its tail?a. 1b. 1/2c. 1/4d. 1/8e. 02. Crossing over occurs in which phase of mitosis?a. metaphaseb. anaphasec. prophased. telophasee. none of the above2. Genes that encode proteins that are always needed are calleda. repressible genes.b. promoter genes.c. constitutive genes.d. inducible genes.e. operons.2. A polyribosome isa. a complex of many ribosomes and an mRNA.b. a complex of many ribosomes in eukaryotes.c. an initiation complex in eukaryotes.d. an elongation complex in eukaryotes.e. a complex of a ribosome with its two subunits and several mRNAs.2. Which of the following statements concerning the cell cycle is FALSE?a. CDKs are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.b. External factors are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle.c. CDKs are active only when they bind to cyclins.d. The amount of CDKs changes during the cell cycle.e. Several types of cyclin regulate different phases of the cell cycle.2. How does the first nucleotide at the 5’ end of a new mRNA chain differ from the other nucleotides in the chain?a. The first nucleotide is always a uracil.b. The first nucleotide is always a cytosine.c. The first nucleotide retains its triphosphate group, while the others do not.d. The first nucleotide does not retain its triphosphate group, while the others in the chain do.e. The first nucleotide is always a modified cytosine.2. A chromosome has the genes U, V, W, and X. They have been shown to have the following crossover frequencies: U and V: 2%; U andW: 9%; U and X: 7%; V and W: 7%; V and X: 5%; and W and X: 2%. What is the sequence of the genes on the chromosome?a. W-X-V-Ub. U-X-V-Wc. X-W-U-Vd. V-U-W-Xe. none of the above2. Why does DNA synthesis only proceed in the 5’ to 3’ direction?a. Because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3’ end of a polynucleotide strand.b. Because the 3’ end of the polynucleotide molecule is more electronegative than the 5’ end.c. Because that is the direction in which the two strands of DNA unzip.d. Because that is the only direction that the polymerase can be oriented.e. Because the chromosomes are always aligned in the 5’ to 3’ direction in the nucleus.2. Which of the following represents the sequence of events during mitosis?a. prophase → metaphase → anaphase → telophaseb. interphase → metaphase → anaphase → telophasec. anaphase → telophase → metaphase → interphased. interphase → prophase → anaphase → metaphasee. metaphase → telophase → anaphase → prophase2. Random segregation refers toa. crossing over.b. regulation of mitosis.c. events during transduction.d. Barr bodies.e. paternal and maternal chromosomes.2. Where is the amino-acid binding site located on the tRNA molecule?a. in the middle of the loopb. at the 3’ end of the moleculec. in the first loopd. along the longest stretch of base pairing in the moleculee. at the 5’ end of the molecule2. During mismatch repair of DNA, the repair enzymea. will remove several nucleotides on both DNA strands.b. will remove several nucleotides on one DNA strand.c. will remove only the mismatched nucleotide.d. will remove the mismatched nucleotide, and the same enzyme will replace it with the correct nucleotide.e. is unable to detect mutations.2. Which of the following is TRUE regarding alternative splicing?a. It is very uncommon in humans.b. One strand of DNA can produce different mRNAs.c. Introns are often absent.d. As a result, the same proteins are produced in different cell types.e. All exons are used to produce m-RNA.
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