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Write my research paperAt the end of this module, you should be able to do the following:One of the most recognizable radio speech deliveries is of President Roosevelt’s speaking to a joint session of Congress announcing the attacks by the Japanese armed forces on Pearl Harbor. As we begin this module, let us first take a step back in time and relive the event, experiencing the full impact of the announcement (the captioned video is available at announcement-captioned) that was made.Even now, the impact is quite powerful. Among some of the precursors to radio are the invention and use of the telegraph, development of the Morse code, wireless telegraphy, and wireless telephony. Since its official emergence in 1920s as a full-blown mass medium, radio has been our nation’s place for breaking news. While newspapers offered next day reports of the current events and happenings within and outside the country, audiences turned to radio for immediate information. This was also where families gathered, receiving the latest updates on anything from entertainment, news, and sports. Since the first official broadcast of KDKA station in 1920, radio has attracted loyal audiences and rapidly expanded under influences of both demand for programming and realization of advertisers of the potential this medium held.As you can imagine, the government was not too far behind with its regulation of radio broadcasting. Blanket Licensing Agreement permitted radio stations to use recorded music by paying fees to cover artists’ royalties, which led to the establishment of commercial sponsorship. Radio stations needed money to cover these fees, and selling advertising spots to sponsors was their way to do it. Finally, the Radio Act of 1927 formed the Federal Radio Commission under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce, requiring stations to operate “as a public convenience, interest, or necessity requires” and making it clear to licensees that they did not own their radio channels, but could license them as long as they fit within these broadcasting intentions.Throughout time, radio has created a new cultural experience, giving people access to affordable sources of information and entertainment, and, in many ways, helping unite America by taking out the regional and bringing in the national programs. For example, when Charles Lindbergh returned from his first transatlantic solo flight in 1927, an estimated 25 to 30 million people listened on the six million radio sets to his welcome-home party (Campbell, Martin, & Fabos, 2013).The fact that all these listeners were a captivated audience did not, of course, come without challenges. On the evening of October 30, 1938, the Mercury Theater on the Air broadcast a version of H. G. Wells’s War of the Worlds. This was intended to be a simple reading of the book, but because the disclaimer of the reading was so short, many listeners simply missed it. After a brief opening and some music, an announcer interrupted the programming with a “breaking news bulletin,” reporting that several unexplained explosions were recorded on Mars, followed by sightings of meteors in New Jersey. This announcement of “the war of the worlds” triggered a panic in unsuspecting listeners who missed the disclaimer that this was just a reading. Here is the link to the original announcement, the music, and the “announcement.” Listen to the first four minutes to experience the full impact, and if you would like, listen further to experience the “reports” that continued to ensue panic that lasted for hours. This incident is a great example of just how much audiences were enthralled with the radio, and how much they relied and trusted in it.Although commercial radio has dominated radio waves, nonprofit radio is not without its own impact. In 1970, National Public Radio launched its national program on FM as an alternative to the commercial networks. Even with public funding, the existence of NPR continues to depend primarily on private donations, but with a devoted audience of over 26 million listeners per week, it continues to survive.As time went by, radio continued to experience changes through involvement of the government. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 deregulated radio, removing restrictions on the business operations of an industry and allowing cross-ownership. Such a change gave companies power to own radio and TV stations, as well as broadcast and cable outlets in the same market. As a result, large national and regional station groups began to form, drastically changing both the sound and localism of radio in the United States (Campbell, Martin, & Fabos, 2013).New and converging technologies further increased the possibilities of radio, making it not only capable of targeting specific audiences, just as magazines did, but providing distribution opportunities beyond the bounds of local and regional reach. On the internet, people can easily listen to radio stations from around the world, and Satellite Digital Radio and XM, launched in 2001, offer more than 100 channels of various talk, music, and sports broadcasting with limited to no advertising for a monthly subscription fee. Shortly after Satellite Radio launched, General Motors began offering satellite radios as a factory installed option on the automobiles, bringing satellite radio to even more subscribers in new places.While radio has evolved through the years, it remains the medium it was intended to be. What once was located in a family’s living room has since moved into bedrooms, the office, the car, and even cell phones. Internet radio (emerging in the 1990s) allowed listeners to simultaneously stream their favorite radio stations, as well as introduced new stations that give listeners control over their listening preferences (e.g., Pandora and AOL Radio), and podcasting (iPod + broadcasting = podcasting) allowed people to listen to radio on their mobile devices. What is notable here is the impact of younger audiences on the culture of radio. Traditional radio stations are mindful of the need to reach and retain younger consumers, and they realize that new media technologies help them accomplish these goals.Interestingly, these new possibilities bring new challenges. While in the 1950s radio had to learn how to compete with television for audiences, today it has to learn how to compete with itself (Biagi, 2011). How does to continue to attract new audience and retain existing ones? How does it compete with the rise of new media? How does it adapt with the rise of converging technologies? And what happens to our individual voices? While the early debates of radio’s intentions were centered on operating in the “public interest, convenience, or necessity,” heavy corporate investments bring to question the rules of limiting corporate ownership of the radio waves. With that comes the question of how much restriction is placed on our individual voices, which may not be heard over the dominated corporate influences of large broadcasting companies that own radio waves.As we move through this week, think about your own relationship with radio. What are your earliest memories of listening to the radio? Why do you listen and what types of radio stations attract your attention? If you could own and manage your own radio station, what format would you choose and why? How would your own radio station contribute or further reinforce elements of your culture? What opportunities would you give your listeners to freely express their individual opinions?ReferencesBiagi, S. (2011). Media impact: An introduction to mass media. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.Campbell, R., Martin, C. R., & Fabos, B. (2013). Media and culture: An introduction to mass communication. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.************************************************************************* COM 126 Final Project Part One Milestone Two Overview: The purpose of this milestone is help you organize your resources for support of your final project. Whereas in the previous Resource List activity you were simply gathering resources, for this assignment you will be reading each one of these resources and summarizing the content. This is the next step in preparing your final project justification paper and gathering quotes and usable information for your final presentation. Prompt: Use the analysis worksheet and fill out each of the boxes in each table. You must complete this activity for at least five resources, but feel free to include more as necessary for your final project. Be sure to include the following critical elements: Purchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view itPurchase the answer to view it©Copyright 2000-2018. All Rights Reserved. TermPaperChampions.com: The most reliable provider of custom academic papers. Our writers are here to help you complete papers from all disciplines and academic levels . You can always trust us to deliver.
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