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There are two (2) questions. You must submit answers to BOTH questions (including sub-questions)
September 26th, 2018 by admin
There are two (2) questions. You must submit answers to BOTH questions(including sub-questions). Submissions should be in a single document. Inpreparing your responses you should focus only on the Week 3 to 7 LectureTopics (and Week 4 to 8 Tutorial Questions).QUESTION 1:Kody and Ryder met whilst studying together at USC and have just graduated.Together they have decided to go into business selling unique, hand-made craftsand other gifts online. They decided to start a company (which they want to registerwith the name “Incredible Gifts Pty Ltd”) to source, market and sell these productsonline.Ryder, keen to get started, approaches Melanie, a well-known local craft artist.Ryder negotiates a 12 month contract with Melanie for the design and provision of arange of unique hand-made gifts, for sale exclusively by Incredible Gifts. Thecontract is signed by both parties on the 26th April 2018 and provides for a monthlypayment of $5,000.When Kody and Ryder go to register Incredible Gifts Pty Ltd on the 2nd of May 2018,they discover that the name has already been registered. As such, they register thecompany Astounding Gifts Pty Ltd instead. Kody and Ryder are listed as the twocompany directors, and Astounding Gifts enters into an employment contract withSalman to act as the company’s accountant. Kody and Ryder each hold 45% of thecompany’s shares and Salman is given a 10% shareholding.On the 12th of May 2018, Kody and Ryder convene their first directors’ meeting.Kody is pleased to hear that Ryder has already managed to sign the exclusivesupply contract with Melanie and they begin paying the $5,000 per month.On the 10th of July 2018 Kody and Ryder find out that Salman has just accepted anaccounting position with their competitor Incredible Gifts Pty Ltd and is trying toencourage Melanie to provide her hand-made gifts to Incredible Gifts instead. Kodyand Ryder immediately call a members’ meeting and pass a resolution that altersAstounding Gift’s constitution to provide that directors may determine that thecompany can buy back shareholdings of less than 12% at their discretion.Astounding Gifts also refuse to continue to pay Melanie the monthly payments.Advise:A. Salman, what the process for altering a company constitution is, andwhether she can prevent the inclusion of the clause allowing thedirectors to expropriate her shares?B. Melanie, what recourse, if any, she has for the non-payment of hermonthly payments for the remainder of her 12 month contract?QUESTION 2:Chip-Eze Pty Ltd is a company involved in two business: the manufacture of potatocrisps and other snack foods, which has been making a loss in the past few years,and the manufacture of frozen potato chips and other foods, which is reasonablyprofitable. The directors of the company are Michaela, Jordon and Marianne whoeach own 25% of the shares in the company. The remaining 25% of the shares areowned by five outside investors (Ayub, Saeed, Donte, Neeve and Faizah).Chip-Eze have been having financial difficulties, with a number of outstandingpayments to creditors—particularly the suppliers of the snack food side of thebusiness. At a board meeting on the 1st of August 2018, Michaela proposes aresolution to incorporate a separate company, Freeze Me Pty Ltd and to transfer theprofitable frozen foods business to this company. The resolution is unanimouslypassed.On the 10th of August 2018, Freeze Me Pty Ltd is incorporated, the assets related tothe frozen food business are transferred to it and all the customers and suppliers areupdated with the new details.On the 6th of August, Jordon had been approached by Faizah who had asked if shecould purchase additional shares in Chip-Eze Pty Ltd. Jordon agreed to sell her anadditional 5% of the shares himself, and they completed the transaction on the 8th ofAugust.Upon application by creditors who had not been paid, the court orders that aliquidator be appointed and Chip-Eze Pty Ltd be wound up in insolvency. Archibald isthen appointed as liquidatorAdvise:A. Archibald whether the directors of Chip-Eze Pty Ltd have breached s181of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) or their equivalent equitable dutiesand what penalties or remedies might be applicable; andB. Faizah whether she has an action against Jordon for breach of directors’duties for selling her the shares in Chip-Eze Pty Ltd just before it wasgoing into liquidation.ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES & INSTRUCTIONSThe following guidelines are based on a review of common errors made in assignments.Students are asked to read these guidelines carefully as they will be taken into account inmarking your papers.ASSESSMENT CRITERIAAs noted in the course outline, the assessment criteria for this assessment task are:1. Demonstration of knowledge of the law, as evidenced by accurate statement ofrelevant legal principles;2. Demonstration of understanding of the law, as evidenced by cogent andcoherent application of legal principles to the fact situation as stated;3. Demonstration of requisite academic communication skills, as evidenced bylogical structure of arguments, appropriateness of conclusions, accuracy ofcitations (legal referencing) and academic referencing and use of accurate andappropriate expression.CONTENT AND ANALYSISThe focus of the assignment is on clear, accurate and concise application of the law to thefact scenario. You should make direct reference to the relevant sections of the legislation(the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth)), as well as the relevant case law (such as that discussedin the lectures and textbook). Make sure you clearly and directly answer the question that isasked. Whilst there may be a range of issues that arise on the facts, focus on the key issuesrequired to respond to the question.In terms of addressing the assessment criteria:• In order to demonstrate knowledge of the law for this assignment, you need to statethe relevant legal principles accurately and reference them appropriately by citingcase law and legislation;• In order to demonstrate understanding of the law, you need to apply the relevantlegal principles to the facts of the case study in order to reach a conclusion;• You need to adopt a logical structure (it is recommended you use headings), avoidspelling and grammatical errors (see further under ‘Structure and Style’ below) andpresent your arguments in a coherent and convincing manner.Note that the use of footnotes is the required method of referencing for legal writing (you canuse the ‘Insert > Footnote’ function in Word).The following guidelines stem from the criteria stated above:• It is not enough to discuss the facts in a general way without reference to legalprinciple/s.• It is not enough to state relevant legal principles without explicitly applying thoseprinciples to the facts.• Statements of legal requirements/ principles must be accurate. Use of your own words isencouraged but must convey the substance (meaning of) the legal principle/s.• Merely reproducing the facts given in the problem will not attract marks. This problemcommonly occurs in written introductions, where it would appear that the writer is notsure where to start.• Answers to each question should include an introduction, analysis which outlines andapplies the relevant law to the facts and a conclusion which responds directly to the4question (but DO NOT simply use ‘introduction’, ‘analysis’ and ‘conclusion’ as yourheadings).• The introduction to each question should contain brief statements of:• The legal terms given to the relevant parties on the facts• The nature of the action to be taken by the party advised• The party who must prove the action (burden of proof)• The relevant standard of proof• The elements of the action requiring proof.• The analysis should include• Statements of the relevant law including the elements requiring proof (from thelegislation) and interpretation of those elements (from legislation and caseauthorities as appropriate)• An application of the legal requirements (elements) and their interpretation to thefacts in question – after correctly identifying the relevant legal issues, this is themost important aspect of your answer• A consideration of legal remedies available to the injured party should the actionbe proven.• The conclusion should contain:• A summary of previous discussion and conclusion as to the likelihood of proof ofthe action. No new material should be included in this part of an answer.• Accurate and full reference to cases and legislation must be used (see further below).STRUCTURE AND STYLEThe following guidelines reflect the requirements of formal academic writing generally andthose more specifically relevant to law.• Executive summaries or absracts should NOT be included.• Headings may be used (and are recommended).• Headings should reflect the legal issues raised by the problem• Do NOT use headings such as IRAC (issue, rule, application…)• Do NOT use headings ‘introduction’, ‘analysis’, ‘conclusion’• Avoid abbreviations- eg use ‘has not’ instead of ‘hasn’t’.• Avoid informal language- eg use ‘Therefore..’ instead of ‘So..’ or ‘Well..’.• Avoid use of emotive language- eg use ‘I argue.., “I would argue..’, ‘I assert.., or ‘Icontend..’ instead of ‘I believe..’, ‘I feel..’ or even ‘I think..’.• Be mindful that legal analysis is about logical argument based on principles as applied tothe facts and not about personal responses- emotional or value-laden.• Avoid use of ‘slang’ (or poor grammar generally)- eg use ‘should have’ instead of ‘shouldof’.• An opinion may be stated but must be based upon an application of legal principle to thefacts.• Ensure you proof read your submission, checking for accurate spelling and grammar(and make use of the spelling and grammar checks available in your word processingsoftware).• Full sentences, containing a subject, verb and object must be used.• When beginning a sentence with a reference to a section of legislation use ‘Section..”• When referring to a section of legislation mid-sentence use ‘s.…’.• When referring to a court’s finding or judgement use, for example, ‘It was held in thatcase that..’ or ‘The court held that..’(Note third person and past tense used).• When first referred to in a sentence cite legislation in full, and the full name of cases plusthe year of reporting. For example;• It was found in Smith v Jones (1986) 5 CLR 98 that..• Section 67 of the Town Planning Act 1987 (Cth) requires that…• Subsequent references may be summarised or truncated to, for example;• In Smith’s Case…• The Town Planning Act…; or• The Act…• Care should be taken in the use of quotations and reproduction of sections of legislation.• Generally a quotation should only be used when the author being quoted conveysher own very specific idea that you are referencing, or when the author conveys anidea in a manner that is convincing and that you cannot adequately paraphrase.• Reproduction of provisions of legislation should be limited to very brief sections orparts of sectionsREFERENCING• Although for your non-law courses you may be using the Harvard style of referencing, orthat appropriate to another discipline, in law the most accepted style is footnoting.• The law reference guide is the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) (3rd ed) and isposted with your assignment (a copy is also available at:http://www.law.unimelb.edu.au/mulr/aglc). There is a great deal of detail in this guide.For our purposes, please note the following and refer to further instruction in the lectures:• Use footnotes by using the ‘insert’ icon in Word and scrolling down to footnote orendnote. Footnotes will appear at the bottom of the page you are working on.• Your footnote should contain references to cases and legislation.• Accurate, complete references to cases and legislation must be given (and may befound in your text).• References to legislation must contain the relevant section to which you are referring.• References to either legislation or cases must NOT contain spelling errors.• Case names and legislation should be presented in italics or underlined.FORMATTING• An assignment cover page should be attached to your work.• The name of your tutor and the day and time of your tutorial MUST appear on theassignment cover page.• Appropriate margins should be provided on each page of your work.• A copy of your paper should be retained for your reference.• Use Times New Roman 12 font and 1.5 line spacing.
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